Slavery in Texas : Citing Portal Material

When doing any kind of research, it is important to remember to cite any materials used in one's work. By using proper citations, readers are able to trace where sources were found, verify their authenticity, and gives credit to the source. Material that is someone else's work that  is not cited is plagiarism. Plagiarism is claiming someone else's work as one's own, rather than citing the orginal author or source. Plagiarism is cheating to the highest degree, and can have dire consequences. Historians cite their work using Chicago, or Turabian, style citations. This citation style involves inputting a citation as a footnote or endnote, and then citing the work in a bibliography at the end of a paper.


A footnote is a citation found at the bottom of a page that is directly tied to a citation in the main body of that pages work. To insert a footnote in Microsoft Word, press Ctrl+Alt+F at the end of a sentence to create a numbered footnote. The cursor then will be brought to the bottom of the page, where a citation can then be input. A typical book citation looks like this:

1 Randolph B. Campbell, An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas, 1821-1865, (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989), 189.

If the work is cited again later in a paper, a shorthand version can be used:

2 Campbell, An Empire for Slavery, 190.


Endnotes are like footnotes, except all endnotes are found at the end of the paper, or if using chapters, at the end of each chapter, rather than at the end of each page. Footnotes and endnotes are both valid ways of citing material in one's work, and choosing one over the other is purely stylistic. Endnote citations look just like footnote citations, and cited material in endnotes still must also be referenced in a bibliography . To place a endnote in Microsoft Word, at the end of a sentence that requires a citation press CTRL+ALT+D. The user will then be taken to the endnotes section where the citation can be made.


Any work that is cited in a paper must be put into a bibliography at the end of the paper: A bibliography is essentially a work cited page that references all the material used in one's work. A book citation in a bibliography looks like this:

Campbell, Randolph B. An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas, 1821-1868. Baton Rouge: Lousisiana State University Press, 1989.

Citing material from the Portal

All materials in the Portal have a formal citation found on that items main page on the right hand siide of the screen. Just click the "Citation" link and the items citation is presented. A citation from the Portal looks like this:

Lundy, Benjamin. The war in Texas; a review of facts and circumstances, showing that this contest is a crusade against Mexico, set on foot by slaveholders, land speculators, & c. in order to re-establish, extend, and perpetuate the system of slavery and the slave trade., Book, 1837; ( : accessed June 06, 2016), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History,; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.

This citation may be put in a footnote. A Portal to Texas History citation in the bibiliogrpahy looks like this:

The Portal to Texas History, University of North Texas Libraries,

This is a basic overview of how to properly cite material in a research paper using Chicago/Turabian style. For more on citing work in Chicago/Turabian style, go to