Credentials demonstrate a person’s record of service or accomplishment, as in the case of diplomas or identifications. Likewise, they establish someone’s qualifications or abilities. But in order for them to work appropriately, credentials have to be recognizable for what they certify. For example, academic credentials are ultimately useless unless they can be determined to prove the accomplishments and qualifications of the person who holds them. The intelligibility of credentials--that which makes them valuable--are formalized and authenticated by bureaucratic forms.